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Beautiful legs – are they real? The best exercises and techniques for strengthening


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table of contents

  • calf muscles
  • anatomy
  • species and groups
  • What are the functions
  • Causes of pain in the leg area
  • Strengthening the leg muscles
  • exercises
The lower leg muscles are divided into anterior, middle and posterior groups located from the knee to the foot. In this the News Agency Sport article, we talk in detail about its anatomy, what functions it performs, and what exercises will help strengthen the lower leg muscles.

calf muscles

Leg muscles have a complex structure. Each muscle group is responsible for the correct position of the foot and affects the health of the musculoskeletal system. Despite the fact that the shins receive a sufficient share of the load, they need additional work, which will help increase the endurance and elasticity of muscle fibers, which is an excellent prevention of various diseases.


Lower leg – part of the lower extremity from the knee to the foot, consisting of the tibia and fibula. The tibia, which is located medially, and the fibula, which is located laterally, are connected by a bony membrane and a flat articular apparatus, in addition to which they are strengthened by ligaments. Also on the tibia are the articular surfaces that connect the skeletal system of the lower leg to the thigh. Above the fibula is attached to the tibia, below is the lateral malleolus.

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The lower leg bones are surrounded on three sides by muscles, which are divided into groups in the direction of the fibers.

© Photo: Freepikcalf muscles

Calf muscles - 1920, 02/01/2023

species and groups

The lower leg consists of 3 muscle groups: anterior, lateral (middle), and posterior. The front consists mainly of the extensors of the foot, the back of the flexors and lateral muscles of the foot, the back of the flexors and supports of the arch of the foot.
The anterior group consists of 3 muscles:
  • frontal tibia

  • long extensor of the fingers

  • long extensor of the thumb.

The tibialis anterior is long and narrow. It originates on the lateral condyle of the tibia and the interosseous membrane. It is attached to the plantar surface of the medial sphenoid bone and to the base of the first metatarsal bone. The long extensor of the fingers is located on the outside of the tibialis anterior muscle, in the upper part of the lower leg, and passes into a long narrow tendon, which is divided into 5 thin individual tendons. Four tendons are attached to the phalanges of the toes, and the fifth to the base of the fifth metatarsal bone.
The extensor digitorum longum is located between the two anterior muscles, starting from the bottom of the medial surface of the fibula and attaching to the base of the distal phalanges.
It consists of long and short peroneal muscles. The first is located on the lateral surface of the lower leg, originating from the head, fascia of the lower leg, the lateral condyle of the tibia and the outer part of the fibula. It attaches to the first and second metatarsal bones, as well as to the medial sphenoid bone.
The short peroneal muscle lies outside the fibula, covered by the long peroneal muscle. It is attached to the tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal bone.
The posterior muscle group of the lower leg consists of 6 flexor muscles of the foot, which are divided into superficial and deep layers. The surface layer includes:
  • Three heads.

  • plantar.

The triceps muscle is located in the back of the lower leg and consists of three heads: the first two are the medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius muscle, and the third is the soleus deep muscle, which is located under the gastrocnemius muscle. Together, the muscles form the Achilles tendon, which is attached to the ganglion tubercle.
The plantar muscle is unstable. It has a spindle shape. It starts from the lateral epicondyle of the femur and the sac of the knee joint. Attached to the heel bone.

© Photo: Freepikcalf muscles

Calf muscles - 1920, 02/01/2023

The deep layer includes:
  • popliteal.

  • posterior, tepal;

  • Flex the long finger

  • Long flexed thumb.

The flat hamstring muscle is located behind the knee joint. It originates in the capsule of the knee joint and from the lateral condyle of the femur, which is attached to the posterior surface of the tibialis body. The posterior part of the tibia lies below the triceps muscle of the lower leg, partially covered by the long flexor of the thumb. It attaches to the sphenoid bone of the foot and the navicular tuberosity
The flexor finger longus is located on the posterior surface of the tibia. The muscle tendon is divided into 4 separate tendons, each of which is attached to the distal phalanges of 2-5 fingers. The hallucis longus flexor is located on the posterior surface of the fibula, and is attached to the base of the distal phalanges of the big toe.

What are the functions

All the muscles of the lower leg are involved in the movements of the foot. Muscle groups are also responsible for extending the leg at the ankle joint and redistributing the load on the lower extremities when flexing the leg at the knee joint.
In addition, each muscle group performs a specific function.

muscle group




tibialis anterior

Extends, rounds and feeds the foot

long extensor finger

It extends the toes and penetrates the foot

long thumb extensor

Extends the big toe and foot


Long and short peroneal muscles

They pierce the foot and bend it. Short is involved in foot abduction

back (surface layer)

Triceps muscle in the leg

Flexes the foot. The calf muscle is also involved in flexing the leg at the knee joint.

plantar muscle

Tighten the knee joint capsule while flexing and rotating the lower leg

back (deep layer)

Long toe flexor

Flexes the fingers and toes

posterior tibial

It flexes and overshadows the foot. He presses his fingers on the ground in a stable body position

Long thumb flexor

The big toe flexes and replaces the foot

Causes of pain in the leg area

Pain in the legs is a common symptom. In most cases, the causes of its appearance are frequent high-intensity physical activity, causing muscle spasm or provoking the following injuries:
  • Meniscus injury

  • Fractures of the bones of the lower leg or ankle joint.

  • Muscle tear.

  • contraction (“blockage”) of the muscle;

  • patellar condyle (jumper’s knee);

  • torn or torn ligaments/tendons;

  • Achilles tendon injury, etc.

The following disorders and diseases may be additional causes of pain and spasms in calves:
  1. 1

    Decreased concentration of salts in the blood due to taking diuretics.

  2. 2

    Uncontrolled use of statins that cause destruction/deformation of muscle tissue.

  3. 3

    Vein thrombosis, varicose veins.

  4. four

    Atherosclerosis in the vessels of the legs.

  5. five

    Various deformities and damage to nerve fibers caused by diabetes, smoking and alcohol abuse.

  6. 6

    Muscle fatigue, compression of nerve endings caused by a lack of physical activity.

  7. 7

    Infectious lesions of muscle tissue.

  8. 8

    Inflammation of the tuberous surface of the tibia.

  9. nine

    Tumor or bone tumor in the lower leg/femur.

  10. 10

    Bone and soft tissue infections.

If you feel pain, you should consult a doctor who will prescribe treatment. As a rule, treatment includes taking medications and various procedures aimed at reducing pain. During treatment, you should forget about sports, as they can aggravate the disease and cause complications.

© Photo: FreepikCalf muscle massage

Calf muscle massage - 1920, 01/02/2023

Strengthening the leg muscles

To prevent diseases, it is necessary to strengthen the muscles of the lower leg by regularly performing special exercises. Training should not be characterized by a high degree of stress, because this part of the body is especially vulnerable. It is enough to do 2-3 times a week, gradually increasing the load. For safety, it is important to observe the following rules:
  1. 1

    Each workout should begin with a warm-up aimed at warming up the joints, muscles and ligaments of the legs.

  2. 2

    All movements should be smooth. It is important to avoid jerking and sudden movements so as not to damage muscle fibers and tendons.

  3. 3

    After the exercise, you need to stretch. Stretching helps relax the muscles and speed up the healing process.

In strengthening exercises, the use of additional weight is not recommended. Weighting should be included in training only after the muscles get used to the current load. It is better to start with dumbbells weighing 3 kg, and increase the load after 6-10 sessions.

© the News Agency / Anton Denisov / Go to Media BankTennis player during training

Tennis player in training - 1920, 01/02/2023


The following exercises help strengthen the calf muscles:
  1. 1

    rises on socks. On exhalation, raise the toes as high as possible, on inhalation – lower. It can be done sitting or standing.

  2. 2

    Heel lift. On the exhale, lean on your heels, pull your socks towards you, on the inhale, lower your fingers.

  3. 3

    Rolls from heel to toe. Stand up straight, rolling from heel to toe, focusing on toes when lifting.

  4. four

    Jump on socks, stand on the platform (at home you can use a thick book). Stand on a hill with your heels on weight. As you exhale, raise your toes as high as possible, and as you inhale, lower them. It can be done sitting or standing.

  5. five

    Stop kidnapping. Sit on the floor with straight legs and an emphasis on the hands. Alternately, take each foot toward and away from you.

  6. 6

    Toe squat. Stand up straight, feet shoulder-width apart, socks turned out to the sides. Stand on your toes and sit as deep as you can without letting your heels hit the floor. Hold at the bottom point for 1-2 seconds, then rest your feet on the floor, and return to the starting position.

  7. 7

    Walking on toes / on the outside of the foot. Run the maximum number of steps around the room. Advanced athletes can use weights.

  8. 8

    The light jumps into place. Jump in place, jumping on your toes.

In the absence of contraindications, various forms of running and jumping can be included in the training. The calf muscles are also excellently trained by jumping rope.

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